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How COVID-19 Spreads


How COVID-19 Spreads
COVID-19 is a new disease, and we are still studying how it spreads, causes the severity of the disease, and to what extent it can cover in the United States.

How COVID-19 Spreads
·       Spreads from person to person —
Ø  Can anyone spread the virus without getting sick?
Ø  Spreading through contact with infected surfaces or objects
How easily the virus spreads
·       The situation in the United States
Symptoms of COVID-19
·       Information about COVID-19 and pregnant women and children
Prevention & Treatment
·       Treatment
Stigma related to COVID-19
What to do if you are suffering from Coronavirus virus 2019 (COVID-19)
·       Steps to help prevent COVID-19- Spread if you are sick with COVID-19
Ø  Stay at home Apart from Medical Care
Ø  Separate yourself from other people and animals in your house
Ø  Call before visiting your doctor
Ø  Wear facemask
Ø  Cover your cough and sneeze
Ø  Clean your hands often
Ø  Avoid sharing personal household items
Ø  Clean "high-touch" surfaces daily
Ø  Monitor your symptoms
Ø  Discontinuing home isolation
Footnote

Current understanding of how the virus that spreads coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known is mostly related to similar coronaviruses. COVID-19 is a new disease and needs to know more about how it spreads, what causes the disease, and to what extent it can spread in the US.

Spreads from person to person —

It assumes that the virus mainly spreads from one person to another.
  • In contact with each other between people (within 6 feet).
  • Drops of breath form when a person is infected or sneezing.

Such drops may land in the mouths or noses of nearby people, or perhaps into the lungs.

Can anyone spread the virus without getting sick?
·       People are the most contagious when they are the most (most sick) symptomatic.
·       That is possible before people show symptoms; That confirms this new coronavirus but is not known as the primary method of spreading the virus. 

Spreading through contact with infected surfaces or objects
A person may be able to obtain COVID-19 by touching the surface or object on which the virus is, and then by touching their mouth, nose, or perhaps eyes, but It does not consider the virus to be the primary way of spreading. 

How easily the virus spreads

The ease with which the virus spreads can vary from person to person. Some viruses, such as measles, are highly contagious (easily spread), while other viruses do not spread easily. Another factor is that the spread is continuous, spreading continuously without stopping.

In some affected geographic areas, the virus causing COVID-19 appears to spread quickly and continuously within the community ("community spread").

Community dissemination means that people in a region have become infected with the virus, some of whom are unsure about how or where they became infected.

The situation in the United States
  • Imported cases of COVID-19 were observe in travelers in the US.
  • The COVID-19 person-to-person spread records the first in close contact with Wuhan travelers.
  • During the week of February 23, CDC reported the virus spreading to COVID-19 in California (at two locations), Oregon and Washington. The sprawling community in Washington resulted in the first death from COVID-19 in the United States, as well as the first report of COVID-19 in a health care worker and the first possible outbreak in a long-term care facility.

Symptoms of COVID-19

Symptoms will develop within 2–14 days of exposure:
Reported diseases range from mild symptoms to severe illness and confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases.
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath 
Information about COVID-19 and pregnant women and children

There is no information regarding the vulnerability of pregnant women in COVID-19 from currently published scientific reports. Pregnant women experience changes in immunology and physiology that may make them more susceptible to viral respiratory infections, such as COVID-19.
There is no evidence that children are more COVID-19 prone. Also, most confirmed COVID-19 cases from China occurred in adults. Infections of infants in very young children. An ongoing investigation is underway to determine more about this outbreak. It is a rapidly evolving situation and will update the information as it becomes available. 

Prevention & Treatment

There is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus virus 2019 (COVID-19). The best way to prevent infection is to avoid exposure to that virus. As a reminder, however, the CDC also recommends regular preventive measures to help prevent the spread of respiratory diseases, including: 
  • Avoid close contact with sick people.
  • Do not touch your eyes, your nose, and your mouth.
  • If you are sick, then stay home.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a handkerchief or tissue and throw the tissue into the trash.
  • Clean and disinfected objects and surfaces are often touched, regularly using household cleaning sprays or wipes.
  • Follow CDC recommendations to use a facemask.
Ø  The CDC does not recommend that people wearing facemasks like COVID-19 protect against respiratory diseases.

Ø  People who show symptoms of COVID-19 should use a face mask to prevent the disease from spreading to others. The use of a facemask is also crucial for health workers and individuals who take care of a person near (at home or in a health care facility).
  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom; Before eating, and coughing, or sneezing, after running down your nose.
Ø  If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcoholic sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol. Always wash hands with soap and water if your hands are dirty in appearance.
Treatment

  • There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should receive supportive care to relieve symptoms. Therapy for severe cases should include supervision to support vital organ functions. 
  • Those who think they uncover COVID-19 should contact their healthcare provider immediately. 

Stigma related to COVID-19 

Currently, most people in the United States have a low risk of exposure to the virus, which causes COVID-19. Although some people are worried about the disease, fear and anxiety can create stigma towards Chinese or other Asian Americans.

Stigma and prejudice can occur when people associate with a population or nationality with an infectious disease such as COVID-19. However, not everyone in that population or region is directly at risk of the disease (e.g., Chinese- American and the other Asian-American United States).

Stigma affects everyone by creating more resentment or fear in ordinary people rather than the disease that causes problems. Through providing social resources, we will fight stigma and help not harm others. We can communicate facts that, being Chinese or Asian American, do not increase the chances of acquiring or spreading COVID-19.

People of Asian descent - who are not in the area of ​​the recent ongoing COVID-19 spread or are in contact with someone who is not at risk of COVID-19 case confirmation or suspected COVID-19 and is spreading compared to other Americans.
  • Viruses cannot target specific populations, racial backgrounds, or ethnic people.
  • People from affected countries who live in the US may be worried or anxious about friends and relatives who are living in the area. Facing stigma can worsen fear and anxiety. Social support during this outbreak can help them cope.
People who have returned from the COVID-19 contiguous area 14 days earlier and have no symptoms with the virus, so interacting with it will not get you the virus.

  • Those who have traveled to the regions to help in the COVID-19 epidemic have rendered valuable service to all by helping to ensure that the disease does not spread further.
  • Helping to fight an outbreak can be mentally and emotionally challenging. These assistants need social support when they return.
  • The US the government should respond to the outbreak and update the travel safety notification as needed.
During the COVID-19 response, communicators and public health officials will help combat stigma.
  • Maintain the dignity and confidentiality of health care seekers and who may be part of any communication investigation.
·     Communicate at the right time to the risk or mitigation of danger from engagement with products, people, and places.
  • They are raising awareness of COVID-19 without increasing fear.
  • Share accurate information on how the virus is spreading.
  • Speak against negative behavior, including making negative statements about groups of people on social media or people who are not threatened by regular activities.
  • Be careful about shared photos. Ensure that they do not promote prejudices.
  • Engagement with stigmatized communities, including news media and social media, through individuals and media channels.
  • Express the need for social support for those in the affected area who have returned from China or are concerned about friends or relatives. 

What to do if you are suffering from Coronavirus virus 2019 (COVID-19)

If you have symptoms of fever and respiratory diseases, such as cough or difficulty breathing, and are in close contact with someone with COVID-19 or if you live or have recently traveled, then contact the health care provider. Is it continuously spreading? Discuss your recent trip or conversation with your healthcare professional. Your health care provider, in consultation with the Public Health Department and the CDC in your state, will decide whether to test COVID-19. 

Steps to help prevent COVID-19- Spread if you are sick with COVID-19 

You can get infected with the COVID-19 virus.; follow the steps below to prevent the disease from spreading to people in your home and group.

Stay at home Apart from Medical Care - People who are mildly ill with COVID-19 can separate at home during their illness. In addition to seeking medical attention, you should restrict activities outside your home. Do not go to work in a school or public place. Avoid using public transport, ridesharing, or taxis.

Separate yourself from other people and animals in your house. 
People: You should stay as far away from other people in your house as possible and a specific room. You should use a separate bathroom when available.

Animals: When you are sick with COVID-19, you can avoid contact with pets, and other animals like you would spread around other humans. Although there have been no reports of pets or other animals becoming ill with COVID-19, It recommends that people with COVID-19 prohibit contact with animals until more information about the virus is available.

If you are sick with COVID-19, avoid contact with your pet, including petting, snuggling, kissing or licking, and sharing food. If you are caring for your pet or are around animals while you are sick, wash your hands and wear masks before and after interacting with the pet.

Call before visiting your doctor
 If you have a medical appointment, call the healthcare provider and let them know you have or may have COVID-19. It will help the healthcare provider's office take steps to prevent the risk of infection or other individuals.

Wear facemask
You must wear a facemask when you are around other people (e.g., sharing a room or vehicle) or pets, or before you enter the healthcare provider's office. If you are not able to wear a facemask (for example, because it creates difficulty in breathing), then those who live with you should not be in the same room with you or they wear the facemask upon entering your home.

Cover your cough and sneeze
If you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue. Throw the used tissue into a lined dustbin. Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds with soap or water, or if soap and water are not available, clean your hands with a sanitizer containing at least 60 percent alcohol.

Clean your hands often
Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after running, coughing or sneezing your nose; go to the bathroom; And before eating or preparing food. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least 60 percent of alcohol. If soap and water are not readily available, cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel warm.
When the hands are visibly dirty, soap and water is the best option. Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.

Avoid sharing personal household items 
Do not share utensils, drinking glasses, cups, eating utensils, and towels with other people or pets in your household.

Clean "high-touch" surfaces daily
High-touch surfaces include shelves, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fittings, toilets, telephones, keyboards, laptops, and bedside tables. Clean surfaces that may contain blood, feces, or body fluids. Use a spray or wipe for household cleaning, as specified by the label instructions.
The label contains instructions for using the cleaning product safely and effectively, including precautions, you should take when applying the product, such as wearing gloves and ensuring that you have proper ventilation during product use.

Monitor your symptoms
If your condition worsens (e.g., trouble breathing), seek medical attention immediately. Contact the healthcare provider before taking care, and let them know that you have COVID-19, or evaluate it for

Place on a facemask before entering the room. These precautions will allow the health care provider's office to prevent other persons from contaminating or exposing the office or waiting room.

Ask your healthcare provider to call the local or state health department. Those under active surveillance or self-monitoring should follow the instructions given by their local health department or occupational health professionals.

If you are in a medical emergency and need to dial 911, notify the person you have, or evaluate for COVID-19. Put on a facemask, if possible, until emergency medical services arrive.

Discontinuing home isolation
Patients with confirmed COVID-19 will have to remain cautious about home isolation until the risk of secondary transmission to others is considered minimal. In coordination with health care providers and state and local health departments, the decision to discontinue the home isolation measure takes on a case-by-case basis.

Footnote: 
1 Fever can be subjective or confirmed at any time
2 Defines as closed contact –
Approximately 6 feet (2 m) from the COVID-19 case for an extended time; The COVID-19 case may be accompanied by close contact while caring, working, visiting, or sharing a waiting area or location.
OR

COVID-19 has direct contact with infectious secretions (e.g., cough)
Where approved personal protective equipment or PPE (such as gowns, gloves, NIOSH certified disposable N95 respirators, eye protection), such contact occurs not meeting the requirements of the PUI.

The data is limited to inform the concept of friendly contact. When determining close contact, the symposium includes the duration of exposure (such as the more significant exposure time increases risk exposure) and the clinical signs of the COVID-19 patient (such as the risk from exposure to a critically ill patient Increases the probability of increase). It gives special attention to people working in healthcare settings.

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